Netopia 3346N-ENT User Guide (en)

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Multiple Network Address Translation   4-3
Dynamic mapping
Dynamic mapping, often referred to as many-to-few, offers an extension to the advantages provided by static 
mapping. Instead of requiring a one-to-one association of public addresses and private addresses, as is 
required in static mapping, dynamic mapping uses a group of public IP addresses to dynamically allocate static 
mappings to private hosts that are communicating with the public network. If a host on the private network 
initiates a connection to the Internet, for example, the Netopia Router automatically sets up a one-to-one 
mapping of that host’s private IP address to one of the public IP addresses allocated to be used for Dynamic 
NAT. As long as this host is communicating with the Internet, it will be able to use that address. When traffic 
from that host ceases, and no traffic is passed from that host for five minutes, the public address is made 
available again for other private hosts to use as necessar y. 
When addresses are returned to the group of available addresses, they are returned to the head of the group, 
being the most recently used. If that same host requests a connection an hour later, and the same public 
address is still available, then it will be mapped to the same private host. If a new host, which has not 
previously requested a connection, initiates a connection it is allocated the last, or oldest, public address 
available.
Dynamic NAT is a way of sharing a range of public, or exterior, NAT addresses among one or more groups of 
private, or interior, hosts. This is intended to provide superior suppor t for applications that traditionally have 
difficulty communicating through NAT. Dynamic NAT is intended to provide functionality beyond many-to-one and 
one-to-one translation. Netopia’s NAT implementation makes it possible to have a static mapping of one public 
address to one private address, thus allowing applications such as NetMeeting to work by assuring that any 
traffic sent back to the source IP address is for warded through to the internal machine. 
Static one-to-one mapping works well if you have enough IP addresses for all the workstations on your LAN. If 
you do not, Dynamic NAT allows machines to make full use of the publicly routable IP addresses provided by the 
ISP as necessar y, on demand. When these public IP addresses are no longer being used by a par ticular 
workstation, they are returned to a pool of available addresses for other workstations to use.
A common example is a DSL customer’s application. Most DSL ISPs only provide customers with a few IP 
addresses for use on their network. For networks with more than four or five machines it is usually mandator y to 
use NAT. A customer may have 15 workstations on the LAN, all of which need Internet access. The customer is 
only provided five IP addresses by their ISP. The customer has eight hosts, which only need to use email and 
have Web access, but another seven hosts, which use NetMeeting to communicate with clients once or twice a 
day. NetMeeting will not work unless a static one-to-one mapping exists for the machine running NetMeeting to 
use for communication. The customer does not have enough IP addresses to create a one-to-one mapping for 
each of the seven users. This is where dynamic NAT applies.
The customer can configure four of these addresses to be used for Dynamic NAT. The fifth address is then used 
for the eight other machines that do not need one-to-one mappings. As each machine configured to use 
addresses from the dynamic pool tries to connect to the Internet it is allocated a public IP address to use 
temporarily. Once the communication has been terminated, that IP address is freed for one of the other six 
hosts to use.